Estrus cycle,Mating,Puberty:

ESTROUS CYCLE:The estrous cycle is the period of time from the beginning of one heat period to the beginning of the next. Estrous cycle length of goats  is of 21 days.

Goats are seasonal and short-day breeders, The most natural time for Goat to breed is from
late June -Sept and feb-march, but stall feed goats may breeds  throughout the year.

Estrus, or heat, is the period of time when the female is sexually receptive to the buck.It is also called as mating period. Estrus can last from 24 to 48 hours in does at the end or beginning of oestrus cycle. Ovulation normally occurs toward the end of the estrus cycle. Typical ovulation times for the does are about 24 to 36 hours from the beginning of estrus. Following ovulation, goat eggs are generally capable of fertilization for 10 to 25 hours. Mating of a buck with a doe in the estrus period causes successful fertilization, which makes the doe pregnant and will be ready to deliver kids in next 5 months.

SIGN OF HEAT IN DOE:A doe in heat is restless, bleats and urinates frequently, and wags her tail rapidly. She may also experience loss of appetite and rub against other goats in the herd. Other signs include redness and swelling around the vulva, which may have a thin mucous discharge.

NATURAL PROCESS OF MATING:A doe in season (in heat) will indicate her interest in breeding by wagging her tail rapidly for the buck; this is called flagging. Her urine contains chemicals which tell the buck that she is ready to breed. The buck will urinate upon his face, beard, and front legs. He will approach the flagging doe, she will squat and urinate, and he will place his nose in the urine stream. Raising his head high, the buck will curl his upper lip to detect the pheromones which tell him that the doe is receptive to being bred.

PUBERTY:In goats sexual development is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In does and bucks the age at puberty ranges from 150 to 230 days, dependent on nutrition, location and season of birth. Nutrition is among the most significant factors influencing reproductive development and the onset of puberty. A low plane of nutrition delays first estrus and reduces uterine and ovarian weights, while having no effect on the partitioning of fat and protein and the weight of other organs. Increasing the overall plane of nutrition generally advances the onset of puberty, but overfeeding will decrease subsequent fertility and impair mammary gland development.